Harish Jharia

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29 April 2010

Human Life: The Most Complex Phenomenon

© Harish Jharia

We all know that our life is an unsolved mystery. Philosophers have been working overtime, since time immemorial, to find out a definition for human life. Yet, no one could evolve a suitable definition appropriate for the complexities and mysteries of the human life. My purpose of writing this article is not to suggest any definition. I would rather like to discuss some of the complexities of human life in this article.



              Rickshaw Pullers Kolkata

Some times in April 2004 there was a news item about a 65 year old rickshaw puller of Kolkata, India, who used to carry two passengers and a hundred kg baggage. Kolkata rickshaws are hand pulled carriages and need excessive energy for the rickshaw pullers to operate them. I just could not believe that 65 year old reshow pullers could run 40 plus kilometer carrying a load of 200kg.  These frail and old human beings pull the rickshaws by holding the pulling bars in hands and running barefoot on the tar-roads for miles together and earn their livelihood.


It would not be out of context that this happened in the state of west Bengal under the rule of a communist government.


                    Childhood in India  

I do not forget poor children picking up rice grains from an open drain in Pune, India and eating them straight from the stinking trash. I saw this horrific scene about 30 years back when I went to that city on a short trip. I do not have any doubts that the condition of poor slum dwellers might not have improved after 30 years.  

A recently produced British film “Slum-dog Millionaire” is a testimony of the ever depleting financial conditions of slum dwellers in Indian metro cities and down-towns.


              We and our parents

We always feel proud in declaring our parentage and linage, especially about our genetic inheritance from our fathers. We keep maintaining our family tree where we display the names of our forefathers with pride. In spite of this instinctive human tendency of the masses, you might find a few odd people who categorically reject genetic relations with their fathers, just because the parents happen to be ugly or handicapped.



 Social discrimination in India

My country India is one of the few republics in the world, where social discrimination is practiced even in this current age. A recent news headline reports about a newlywed couple who were refused entry in a temple of their own Hindu religion just because they belonged to the so-called ‘lower caste’. The couple was subsequently beaten up by the upper cast crowed when they insisted on entering the temple of their God and worship the lord.

The matter regarding social discrimination against lower casts, practiced in India was also raised in the global forum of United Nations. In spite of that, this barbaric and inhuman social stigma is widely practiced all through the length and breadth of Indian republic.



     Life of Indian rich and famous

India has figured on the world map of the richest people in the world. We boast of having about 7 to 9 richest Indians in the world. Nevertheless, while basking in glory, we forget and deliberately hide the fact that the poorest of the poor in the world are also Indians. Hundreds of farmers commit suicide in western India out of poverty. Thousand of rural population in eastern India is reported to have resorted to eating grass seeds and burnt rodents to survive; whereas many other unfortunates die out of starvation.

The proverb “bad-bad world’ appears to be true. There is rampant starvation, poverty, barbarism and injustice in the world of humans. Nevertheless, the world is still surviving because we believe that there might be a substantial population of better people who might be doing good for the underprivileged and the discriminated ones. Yet, just carrying wishful thinking would not help the world to survive. The existence of this planet has been threatened by outbreak of terrorism and regional extremism like the Naxalite militancy along the entire eastern coastline of India. We will have to wakeup from our self created fearless safe heavens and take some strong remedial measures to bring back the regime of humanity to the world.

How long the majority population will continue living underprivileged life. How long the poor are going to be discriminated and how long the less than 10% of the world’s population will govern over the planet earth and dictate terms to the masses? 


How long…?

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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia

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28 April 2010

Field of Vision viz-a-viz Stresses


Our field of vision vis-à-vis peace of mind

© Harish Jharia


We are bestowed upon with a wide field of vision of 180 degrees approx. Have you ever tried out for yourself by fixing your eyes at any one distant object in front of you and realize how far towards left and right sides from that point you are able to resolve without moving your eyeballs. You will come to know that you are able to see the entire panoramic view spread along 180 degrees approx, in front of you while keeping your eyes fixed at one point.

You may better visualize your panoramic field of vision on a site where the horizon is visible without any dominating object in the field and such sites can be found in deserts, on a seashore or from the top of a hill. There is another place where you can realize this priceless gift of Mother Nature and that is your bedroom. Stretch out on your bed and fix your eyes on the ceiling fan and do the same exercise described in the preceding paragraph.

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We do not visualize our panoramic vision of 180 degrees

In spite of this wide range of visibility we usually forget about the field of vision apparently visible through the corners of our eyes. We usually do not visualize this panoramic view of 180 degrees approx, because the more we drown under stresses the shorter would be the field of vision. Our field of vision is reduced to the minimum in intense depressed condition and it becomes broader as we come out of depression.

If fact our field of vision continues to be constant at 180 degrees approx all the times. It is our instinct of perception that changes with our peace of mind that fluctuates with our mental stresses, anxiety and temperament.  Our stresses and emotional out bursts usually make us think in a narrow perspective and thereby make us look within a narrow angle. In stresses we fix our eyes at a point and become blindfold about surroundings. The narrower the approach of thinking the shorter would become the field of vision.

Reduce stresses by increasing field of vision:

Let us try to improve our stressed mind by increasing field of vision. We will try to reverse the cycle that is initiated from our stresses in our mind and finally ends up in our physical instinct of seeing in a narrow angle.

  • Outstretch on your bed in your bed room with your face up
  • Bring your body in the most relaxed condition
  • Look at the ceiling fan hanging at the roof
  • Fix your eyes at the fan
  • Stop thinking process going on in your mind
  • Now try to visualize the ceiling / roof as far away as possible, towards the walls, without disturbing your eyes from the ceiling fan
  • You will feel that your breathing becomes deeper
  • Concentrate yourself at your breathing and inhale adequate air and take deeper breaths
  • Keep your eyes set on the ceiling fan and continue visualizing the entire ceiling for a prolonged period; say 3 to  5 minutes
  • Remember to keep your mind free from thoughts
  • You will feel that your stresses get reduced and you become more energetic
 You may not succeed in the first attempt. Yet keep trying and in a couple of attempts you might succeed in reducing the stresses by increasing your field of vision.

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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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18 April 2010

Break Monotony in Daily Life and Keep Away Stress, Anxiety and Depression

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© Harish Jharia

With the advent of modern ways of life, our bodies have become inactive and we have confined ourselves within the fore-walls of our homes imposing on us a sort of solitary confinement in the name of luxury. We do not know anything about our next door neighbor  and even keep being ignorant about the whereabouts of our family members. We live lonely lives and claim to enjoy our solitude.  We install indoor gym gadgets and do workout on them rather than venturing out for a jog and exercise in fresh air in the open natural environment. 

We close our windows and doors of our house and put-on electric lights to maintain visibility, rather than using the natural light bestowed upon us in abundance by the Mother Nature. . We stop cross ventilation, inhale stagnated air and create an unhealthy artificial environment in our homes, in stead of letting the fresh breeze enter our abode and induce new lives in our bodies. We mostly try to find a place to sit down wherever we go. If we stand we try to rest our shoulder against a wall. We don’t do our personal chores ourselves and wait for someone else to arrive and do those jobs for us.

In all, the lives of the masses in the upper-middle class bracket and in the higher status are stale, inactive and dull. Majority of people are over-weight and have many acquired diseases like diabetes , hypertension, heart diseases, etc. In spite of all the facilities and nutritious food, the life expectancy in modern times is declining. As a result of that, star hospitals that are mushroomed all around and engaged in surgeries like Angioplasty, Bypass surgery and other open-heart surgeries with a long queue in waiting are minting money. These hospitals are doing roaring business and there are more medical stores in our towns and cities as compare to the number of fruit juice shops in the market.

Now, here is the time when you should break the monotony in your lives and take yourselves out on a move. Do not sit idle; leave your resting place and venture out for taking yourself in natural surroundings.  The best way is to wakeup at 6am in the morning and go to a nearby jogging park and take a brisk walk or jog of two and a half kilometers. In addition to that, do some stretching exercises for making your body a bit more flexible.

By doing so, you will break the monotony  of your indoor life that you unknowingly impose upon yourself. You come out of your solitary confinement from your house and live in open air and natural environment for an hour or so. You inhale fresh air and feel the pleasure of the pleasant views of sun rise and the successive changing colors of the flora and fauna around you with the rising sun. You will have to venture out of your house leaving behind your bed and the monotonous inactive life.

It would be a good idea to know about the people next door. It is believed that when we meet different people we undergo a psychological exercise by introducing ourselves to the different ways of life lived by different people.  We usually think that we are the only ones who are passing through the struggles and diversities of human life . By meeting others, we would find that not only us even each one in the world is encountering the adversities of life.

It is a natural instinctive belief that “we have bigger brains while the wallets of others are heavier”.  We need to understand the fact that human life is not a cake walk. Human life is full of struggles and problems that have to be faced and resolved all by ourselves. No one is going to rush for our rescue.  We need to keep cool for making ourselves prepared for the struggle because the moment we lose our cool, we also lose our mental and physical strength in the same proportion.

Pugilists  are usually instructed to keep their cool intact in the ring, lest the boxer might lose the bout. Human life is no less complex than a boxing bout; where a wink of our eye would provide a chance to the opponent to hit a punch right on our jaw.  A boxer is required to be well aware of the game strategy and psychological attitude of his opponent. He also needs to keep an eye on their location on the ring in order to decide his own strategy to fight the bout to win.

In the same way we also need to be well aware about the people around us and their nature, attitude and social environment out there. By doing so we develop self confidence and courage for keeping ourselves well prepared for facing any adversities  and eventualities in our life. Breaking the monotony of our daily life by doing these exercises will give piece of mind, reduce our stress level and the fear for unknown threats in our mind will vanish.

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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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08 April 2010

Poor Appetite of Youngsters in Modern Times

          Inactive life kills your appetite..

© Harish Jharia

In our modern way of living and the current intellectual ways of thinking has made us addicted to computers. We keep sitting at one place for hours together. We also indulge in the habits of chatting and dating with dozens of people on internet. We develop friendships with strangers that are unknown and unseen. Eventually we keep sticking to our chair, constantly gazing at the monitor and become inactive lazy and slow in our day-to-day activities.

For having a more healthy life, we should limit your idling time and increase active hours. We might better take-up as many household chores as possible from our mother and assist our father in various departments of our daily life. Do not remain to be guest or a paying-guest to your parents. Realize that it is your home and not a college hostel.


You should look like a youngster, a girl or a boy by your activities and by running around all the time… rather than crawling like a slow and lazy person.

If you keep yourself physically active, your body will release vital hormones required for your proper growth, health and luster of your skin, skin tone and adequate appetite for food, out of physical activities and cardiovascular exertions. For gaining optimum health, you need 30-40min exercise / walking / jogging daily regularly.

Do not put yourself on controlled diet unless you are obese. Take 3 to 4 times rich diets of normal Indian food is adequately rich for youngsters. Just add lots of salads, and fruits including seasonal fruits to your diet. Fruits and salads are necessary for your cosmetic health like skin tone, adequate moisture in your muscles and skin, healthy eyes and hair.

For enhancing your appetite, you may go for the regimes summarized as follows:
•    Do regular cardiovascular exercise daily in the morning
•    The best cardiovascular exercise is brisk running for 30 to 40 minutes
•    Getup at 6am well before you take your breakfast
•    Go to bed at 10pm for having a sound sleep of 8hrs
•    Spare time for going in balcony or lawn and breath fresh air
•    Spare time for chatting with family members or friends
•    Spare time for watching TV
•    Keep away from solitude and mix-up with people
•    Do not eat any thing within 1 hour before your meals
•    Do not drink water during eating food
•    Drink water 30 minutes after taking food
•    Eat lots of salads of fresh vegetables
•    Make it a habit to take fruits at least once a day

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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia

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Mismanaged Indian Railways through Common Man’s Eye


© Harish Jharia

In 1960s, Indian railways had three classes. The 3rd class was for common people 2nd class for middle classes and 1st class for the higher classes.

I remember my childhood railway journeys when our family used to travel in 3rd class couches, that had wooden benches to sit or sleep and windows wide open without iron grills. There was no system of berths and reservations. Travelers used to buy tickets and board the train and travel long journeys, just like that.

My dad used to lift me up in his arms and push me through windows right on the wooden benches in the couches with instructions to capture as much place as required for our family. Similarly, we used to load our luggage through the windows and later my dad used to stack all the pieces on the upper berth.


We children felt quite excited all through our journeys. We enjoyed the puffing sound of steam engine, the loud shrill sound of whistle and the mixed smell of steam and smoke that gushed in the couch through windows.

I traveled in 2nd class for the first time when I went to Bangalore for my SSB interview in 1964. The class of my travel successively elevated with the passage of time and so were the technology, quality and facilities in trains.

In 1970s, the journey between Jabalpur and Dehradun was so hectic to accomplish. We had to travel in the first train from Dehradun to Delhi, secondly from Delhi to Bina in another train and finally from Bina to Jabalpur in the third. There were long waiting hours on each railway junction with minimal facilities for food and water.

Today the Indian railways are one of the best setups in the world. We have fast and super-fast long distance trains, with facilities of air-conditioning, catering and online reservations. We have the best possible infrastructure in the world, on which the railways have invested billions of rupees from the people’s treasury. In spite of all this the users are dissatisfied, frustrated and most of the times feel cheated and exploited.

The main reasons for the denial of expected facilities to the users, for which they pay, are rampant mismanagement, negligence in maintenance, corruption and inefficiency of employees. 

The Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Ahmedabad, had invited the Railway Minister for delivering lectures on management to their students. It is a testimony of expertise of the minister in the field of management. Nevertheless, you would hardly believe on IIM’s perspective if you look at the way the Ministry Of Railways manages Indian Railways. The following are the areas where Indian Railway’s mismanagement, negligence in maintenance, corruption and inefficiency of employees is apparently perceptible:

  1. Overall condition of trains are bad… broken, dilapidated, vulnerable
  2. Condition of tracks are bad… lose, uneven
  3. Cleanliness in trains and stations is not satisfactory
  4. Quality of fittings in the compartment and in toilets are poor
  5. Quality of repairs and servicing on interiors is poor
  6. Cleanliness on tracks and yards is drastically poor
  7. Most of the trains do not have catering facility
  8. Attendants and housekeeping staff do not wear uniform and nametags on person
  9. A/Cs are miss-operated by untrained staff
  10. Users have to pay bribe for ‘tatkal’ reservations
  11. Users have to pay bribe for ‘wait list’ and ‘RAC’conformations
  12. Unauthorized private venders sell tea and snacks in A / C couches
  13. Trains do not run on time
  14. There is no control on unauthorized boarding by politicians and their accomplices
  15. Quality of food served in running trains is poor
  16. Complaint book is not readily available
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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia

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With Love from Ex-Students: A gift to Their School Teacher


New Delhi, India


© Harish Jharia, 27 August 2009

A couple of days back, on 25 August 2009, there was news in Times of India, about an eighty-year-old retired teacher in a small village in Tamilnadu. The teacher used to teach Tamil in a school and was loved by his students for his excellent oratory and in-depth knowledge in the subject. The students whom he taught did not forget him and one fine morning they assembled in the hometown of the teacher and presented him with a duplex house as a gesture to let him know as to how intensely his students loved him. 

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School teacher, the Architect of our Career...

The teacher worked in various schools in that area for many decades and then retired from his job and granted a monthly pension. On the day, he retired from his service; he was under heavy debts out of the loans he took for solemnizing marriages of his two daughters. 



A major portion of his pension was spent on paying back the installments of the loans and he was left with a small portion of his pension for the survival of the old couple. He lived such type of life for quite some time until the day about a dozen young men assembled at his rented house and introduced themselves as his ex-students. The teacher identified each of his pupil when they disclosed their names and the year they studied in his school.


It was a very emotional reunion between a teacher and his students. It was more a pleasant surprise for the teacher because usually the students do not remember their teachers when they grow up in their adulthood. The current age of corporate world is more practical rather than being emotional with feelings of compassion. Nevertheless, the teacher and his wife enjoyed the couple of hours with the youngsters who converged to pay tribute to their teacher with lovely gifts and words of appreciation for their teacher.


This reunion was not the end of the story because the story was yet to take off after the visit. These ex-students of the teacher went back to their places and then contacted their friends who were also the ex-students of the teacher.  Finally, the tally reached at an unbelievable number of 200 odd young men including software professionals, management professionals, industrialists and other intellectuals.


In spite of the fact that every one of them was capable, they reached to a amicable conclusion that a joint gift should be presented to the teacher for making his life comfortable and to let him know that his students loved and cared for him even after many decades. This was more a matter of compassion rather than sympathy for the teacher whom they found in utter poverty. The school alumnae believed that the teacher provided them the launching pad for their successful journey that took them to souring heights of fortunes.


A few months passed yet the teacher and his wife did not forget the surprise visit of his old students.  Both of them usually remembered the day of reunion with the old students. One similar morning about two hundred plus youngsters converged around the rented house of the teacher. They formed a queue and started touching the feet of the couple one after the other.


Tents were erected; carpets were laid and within a couple of hours, the surroundings of the teacher’s dwelling were converted into a celebration extravaganza. The teacher could not believe on his eyes when he saw many dignitaries of his area invited to the venue.   It was a grand celebration of the reunion between the person who gave the knowledge and the crowd of the disciples who were preached knowledge by their teacher.

The finale was yet more surprising when the teacher was taken to a new duplex house and was handed over the key and documents of the house. The couple could not believe the turn of events that was happening to them in reality.

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Disclaimer:
This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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Ragging: A Black Blot on Indian Education



Ragging: A Black Blot on Indian Education Sector:


© Harish Jharia

In olden days, senior students of any college used to make the freshers comfortable by displaying welcome messages on banners right at the entrance of the college. Seniors especially those who were active members of the students unions use to open freshers’  assistance booths for helping them in filling up various forms, paying fees, getting hostel accommodation and even guiding them to for shopping for their basic requirements. Some of the senior students used to do all this for selfless service of the youngsters in need and the others did this for inflating their vote banks for students’ unions elections.

With the passage of time, the freshers were successively turned into easily identifiable individuals and for that, many ID systems have been introduced. The freshers now need to follow various codes as follows:




  • They should have crew-cut hairdo
  • They should shave-off mustache
  • They should wear full sleeved shirts
  • One of the front buttons of their shirts should be of a specified color- mostly ‘red’
  • They should wear normal trousers and not jeans
  • They should not make direct eye contact with seniors
  • They should recite a pre determined dialogue whenever they meet a senior

Once the new youngsters are eliminated from the crowd in the college, they simply turn into soft targets for everyone for exploitation in whatever way others like to. If you want them to do sit-ups holding their earlobes, you need not think twice. Simply call them in front of you and ask to do and they will definitely do that.





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Freshers are forced to do that they do not like...

Youngsters lose their self-confidence and keep engrossed in a continued scare from anyone whoever comes across. I have seen some freshers addressing the peons of colleges with the prefix ‘Sir…! Some of them go in depression. There are reports of many youngsters committing suicide because of consistent rigorous ragging. It was reported in a section of press that a trainee just vanished from a ship when he joined marine training. There are reports of physical abuses from many parts of our country.

Whatever is described above is nothing but ‘ragging’ for which court had to intervene and issue a judgment for completely banning the inhuman practice of ragging in colleges, hostels or anywhere. Nevertheless, many incidents have been reported even after the courts directive.

We all were students. Many of us are still studying in colleges. Some of us might have been ragged and few who might have ragged. All of us know well that the students union is one of the most powerful bodies that can play a vital role in eradication ragging from the education sector.  In addition to them, the political parties to whom the unions are affiliated should also issue strict and unequivocal directives to various college branches, for stopping the practice of ragging. If the students unions enforce the law along with the college authorities and district administration then only we will be able to get rid of this shameful black blot on Indian education sector. 

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Disclaimer: This article / Story / fiction is written based on my personal observations. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. Names of people, societies, communities and description of faiths, beliefs, incidents are imaginary and fictitious. They have neither any relevance to the prevailing entities and traditions nor have any similarities with ongoing lifestyles, political ideologies and legal doctrines. The contents of this creative work has not been written with any intention to criticize, condemn or oppose anything what-so-ever present in reality in any country in the world. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on scientific, geographical, political, civic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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