Harish Jharia

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28 June 2012

A Serious Blood complication : Sickle Cell Anemia (सिकल सैल एनीमिया /हँसिया सैल एनीमिया)

 © Harish Jharia / ©  हरीश झारिया

हँसिया सैल एनीमिया ( Sickle Cell Anemia) सिकल सैल रोगोँ में एक आम बीमारी है। एनीमिया (Anemia) अर्थात खून की कमी की शिकायत जो अन्य कई कारणों से लोगों में होती है वह कुछ लोगों में केवल उनके रक्तकणों के हँसियानुमा आकार के कारण उत्पन्न हो जाया करती है। रक्तकणों का हँसिया जैसा आकार एक वंशानुगत जीन्स से सबधित समस्या है जो तमाम विश्व के कई देशों मे पाई जाती है। हँसिया सैल की समस्या सबसे अधिक आफ़्रिका के लगभग आधे से अधिक क्षेत्र में पाई जाती है। इसके अलावा यूरोप के कुछ देशों, उत्तरीय अरब तथा ईरान, अफ़्गानिस्तान, पाकिस्तान से लेकर भारत के मध्यवर्ती इलाकों तक इस रोग के रोगी पाए गए हैं। 

विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन के आँकड़ों के अनुसार हँसिया सैल (Sickle Cell) रोग से ग्रसित लोगों में झारिया, मेहरा जाति के लोगों की संख्या सबसे अधिक है। झारिया बधुओं से आग्रह है कि इस लेख को ध्यान से पढ़ें ताकि अपने परिवारों में हँसिया सैल  (Sickle Cell) की  समस्या से ग्रसित व्यक्तियों का पता लगाया जा सके और उनके वर्तमान स्वास्थ्य और लंबे स्वस्थ जीवन के लिए उचित व्यवस्था की जा सके। 

Normal Red Blood Cells and Sickle Cells (स्वाभाविक रक्तककण और हँसिया रक्तकण)

Click on the image to view enlarged view

चित्र- A  में स्वस्थ स्वाभाविक रक्तकण और रक्तवाहिनी में उनका सुगम प्रवाह दर्षाया गया है। जबकि चित्र- B में हंसिया रक्तकणों का आकार और रक्तवाहिनी में रक्त प्रवाह में रुकावट का चित्रण किया गया है।

हँसिया सैल (Sickle Cell) का क्या अर्थ है…?

हमारा रक्त लाल रक्त-कोशिकाओँ (red blood cells) से बना हुआ होता है। यही कारण है कि उसका रंग लाल होता है। यही लाल रक्त-कण हमारे फ़ेफ़ड़ों द्वारा खींची गई साँस से प्राणवायु (Oxygen) इकट्ठा करके खून के बहाव के साथ लेजाकर शरीर के कोने-कोने तक पहुँचाते हैं। प्राणवायु ( Oxygen ) ही हमारे शरीर को जीवित रखती है। यदि शरीर को पर्याप्त मात्रा में प्राणवायु (Oxygen) नहीं मिल पाती है तो हम विभिन्न किस्म की बीमारियोँ के शिकार हो जाया करते हैं। अगर शरीर को प्राणवायु (Oxygen) मिलना बंद हो जाती है तो मृत्यु होना निश्चित है। 

प्राणवायु (Oxygen) को इकट्ठा करके शरीर भर में पहुंचाने वाले रक्त कणों का प्राकृतिक आकार गोलाकार चकली (donuts) जैसा होता है। वह बिलकुल हमारे घरों में बनाई जाने वाली बाटियों (गाँकर या गकरियों) जैसा होता है, जिनमें प्राणवायु (Oxygen) के लिए भंडारण क्षमता पर्याप्त होती है। साथ ही अपनी गोलाकर बनावट के कारण स्वस्थ रक्तकणों को धमनियों और नसों के संकरे मोड़ों से प्रवाहित होने में आसानी होती है। (देखें चित्र- A)

परंतु इसके विपरीत हँसिया के आकार के रक्तकण एक तो पर्याप्त मात्रा में प्राणवायु ( Oxygen ) सोखने की क्षमता नहीं रखते और साथ ही अपने नुकीले और टेढ़े आकार के कारण वे धमनियों के सँकरे मोड़ों पर फ़ंस जाते हैं और रक्तप्रवाह में रुकावट डाल देते हैं (देखें चित्र- B)। इसके परिणाम स्वरूप शरीर के विशिष्ठ अंगों को पर्याप्त मात्रा में रक्त (blood) और प्राणवायु (Oxygen) नहीं मिल पाती और वे बीमार हो जाते हैं। यही एनीमिया (Anemia) की स्तिथि होती है। 

हँसिया सैल एनिमीया (Sickle Cell Anemia)

आम एनिमीया की बीमारी में रोगी के रक्त में लाल रक्तकण कम हो जाते हैं। हंसिया सैल एनिमीया (Sickle Cell Anemia) में रक्तकणों की उतनी ही मात्रा के बावजूद, रक्त कोशिकाओं (blood cells) के सिकुड़े और पतले आकार के कारण, रक्त पर्याप्त मात्रा में प्राणवायु (Sickle Cell Anemia) नहीं सोख पाता पाता है। साथ ही जहाँ स्वाभाविक रक्तकण बोनमैरो (bone marrow) में पैदा होने के बाद 120 दिनों तक जीवित रहकर नष्ट होते हैं वहीं हँसिया सैल (sickle cells) का जीवन केवल 10 से 20 दिनों का ही होता है। 

हँसिया सैल एनिमीया (Sickle Cell Anemia) एक अनुवांशिक रोग है जो माता-पिता से उनकी संतान को मिलता है। यह रोग जीवन पर्यन्त चलता है क्योंकि खून में वैसे ही रक्तकण अस्वाभाविक आकार के और कम सख्या में होते हैं और ऊपर से उनका जीवन भी 120 दिनों के स्थान पर 10-20 दिनों का ही होता है। बोनमैरो द्वारा रक्तकणों का उत्पादन भी एक सीमा से अधिक नहीं हो पाता. परिणाम स्वरूप रोगी के शरीर में रक्तकोशिकाओं की कमी हमेशा बनी रहती है; नतीजतन, एनिमीया का रोग भी बना रहता है। 

देखभाल और इलाज:

सिकल सैल एनिमीया (Sickle Cell Anemia) का कोई सीधा-सीधा कारगर इलाज नहीं है; हालाँकि रोग के लक्षणों (symptoms) के आधार पर डाक्टर मरीज़ का इलाज करता है और उसकी तकलीफ़ों को कम कर सकता है। बोनमैरो ट्रांससप्लंट (bone-marrow transplant) के द्वारा हँसिया सेल वाला रक्त उत्पादन करने वाले बोन-मेरो के स्थान पर स्वस्थ बोनमैरो का प्रतिरोपण किया जाता है ताकि शरीर में स्वस्थ रक्तकणों का उत्पादन आरंभ हो। स्वास्थ्य विज्ञान के क्षेत्र में प्रगति के परिणाम स्वरूप चिकित्सक की देख-रेख मे रोगी की तकलीफ़ें कम की जा सकती हैं और उसका जीवन अधिक सुविधाजनक और आराम्दायक बनाया जा सकता है। आधुनिक जगत में उच्चकोटि की चिकित्सा सुविधाओं की सहायता से प्रभावित व्यक्ति के लिए सुखदायी और लंबा जीवन जीना संभव हो गया है।  

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Read more about Sickle Cell disease:
  1. Health: 8 Foods for keeping Sickle Cell Patients healthy: http://www.discovery-of-life.com/2012/07/health-8-foods-for-keeping-sickle-cell.html
  2. Sickle Cell Anemia: Disease, Reasons, precautions and care: http://www.discovery-of-life.com/2012/07/sickle-cell-anemia-disease-reasons.html
  3. Crazy ideas: Better Respiratory Conditions for Sufferers of Sickle Cell Disease: http://www.discovery-of-life.com/2012/07/crazy-ideas-better-respiratory.html
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Disclaimer:
This article is written based on my personal observations and on the information collected from the media. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on athletic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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23 June 2012

The First Bollywood Super Star Looking Frail: Rajesh Khanna Admitted To Leelavati Hospital, Mumbai


Rajesh Khanna 69, has been admitted to the Leelavati Hospital. He has become frail and looking older than his age. His manager has stated that he has stopped taking food for the last 3-4 days... 

It appears to us that he might be suffering from some serious complications in his liver, resulting in loss of appetite and missing the intake of food... Nevertheless, the Doctors of Leelavati Hospital know better about the real ailment and treatment for the only real super star in the history of Indian cinema...



Rajesh Khanna's estranged wife Dimple and their son-in-law actor Akshay kumar brought him to the balcony of his bungalow yesterday. Rajesh waved to the fans and showed victory sign with his fingers...

Rajesh Khanna’s fans would like to know about his treatment and progress in his health through regular health bulletins from the Leelavati Hospital PRO.


We wish him fast recovery and send ‘get well soon’ message to him…

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Read more on Rajesh Khanna:
Superstar Rajesh Khanna Passes Away On 18 July 2012: The Rarest Romantic Phenomenon of Bollywood Vanishes 
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22 June 2012

What Is Sabudana / Tapioca / Sago (साबूदाना): Is Sabudana a Vegetarian Food?

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Sabudana is a pure vegetarian food ingredient... 
साबूदाना एक शुद्ध शाकाहारी भोज्य पदार्थ है...
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© Harish Jharia

What is sabudana? 
This is a question that struck in my mind in my school days during 1950s. Ever since, for over 50 years I was in search of the answer to this question, until I got it on the internet. Being a curious child I got different answers from my elders and teachers. They were “I don’t know”; “it is made of flour of water chestnut आरारोट (सिंघाड़े का आटा)”; a senior doctor went to the extant to say that “If you come to know the reality about sabudana, you would hate to eat it”.  In all, I was told by my elders that it was really a mysterious food in spite of its rampant use among Indian consumers.  



Nevertheless, the reality is quite different. In fact Sabudana / Tapioca / Sago (साबूदाना), available in the shape of granules / globules of 2 to 4 mm, is  a natural vegetarian food made out of the milk of a root resembling sweet potato (शकर कन्द).

Sabudana (साबूदाना) is called Tapioca Sago in English and Javarishi in tamil.  Sago is a produce, prepared from the milk of Tapioca Root. Its Botanical name is ‘Manihot Esculenta Crantz Syn Utilissima’. It is a highly nutritious food that contains Carbohydrates and appreciable amount of Calcium and Vitamin-C. 

There are varieties of dishes made out of sabudana including papad,  kheer, vadas and the most popular Sabudana Khichdii (साबूदाना खिचड़ी) that is used as a phalahaar (fruity food / फलाहार) and eaten as a non-cereal refreshment during Hindu religious fasting. 



This is a well-known crop that is recognized by several names in various regions across the world wherever it is consumed. It is known as Yuca, Rumu or Manioca in Latin America; Manioc In French-Speaking Africa and Madagascar; Cassava In English-Speaking Africa, Sri Lanka and Thailand; Mandioca Or Aipim In Brazil; Tapioca And In India and Malaysia And Bi Ketella Or Kaspe In Indonesia. 

Tapioca Sabudana / Sago (साबूदाना) root has a high resistance to plant disease and high tolerance to extreme tropical conditions such as drought and poor soils.

The cassava or manioc plant has its origin in South America. Amazonian Indians used cassava instead of or in addition to rice/potato/maize. Portuguese explorers introduced cassava to Africa through their trade with the African coasts and nearby islands. 

Tapioca was introduced in India during the latter part of 19th Century, Now, mainly grown in the States of Kerala, Andhra-Pradesh, & Tamilnadu. Products from Tapioca like Starch & Sago were introduced in India only in 1940s onwards. 


Tapioca plant on Seychelles 5 cents  coin

Process of making Sabudana / Sago (साबूदाना):

In India, Sago was produced first in Salem (Tamilnadu) somewhere in 1943-44.  Sago sabudana production started as a cottage industry in India by pulping the tapioca roots, extracting and filtering the milk-extract, forming globules and drying these globules in sun.
Subsequently, advanced process of mass production was developed that continues until today. 

Sago Roots, received from the farms are hygienically cleaned in water and after peeling it is crushed, for extracting its milk. The milk is then filled in tanks to settle for nearly 3 to 8 hours.  All the residual impurities float at the top of the juice settled in the tanks and the same are drained out of the settled milk. 

From this concentrated settled milk globules are prepared with the help of typically designed unique manufacturing plants consisting of very simple indigenous machines and modules. These globules or small balls are then sorted in proper sizes by passing through different sieves.  Finally, the globules are roasted on hot plates or heated in steam, depending upon the desired final product Sabudana / Sago (साबूदाना) in globular shape & than dried under direct sunlight spread over huge platforms.

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Click here to read more about Sabudana: 

Sabudana Recipe: Tasty and nutritious vegetarian snack (Hindu fasting diet फलाहार)

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19 June 2012

Modern Days’ rare ailment: The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS


© Harish Jharia 

Before writing the above title, in fact I wrote the title as “Intellectuals’ rare ailment: The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome”. Nevertheless, I changed it to the current-one just because of having some doubts about its victims that are not only highly qualified professional, but even the common housewives managing their homes across the world. 

It is found that chronic fatigue syndrome CFS affects tens of thousands of people across the world. Young to middle-aged adult females are more commonly affected as compared to their male counterparts. People with CFS are usually found unable to perform normally at work and home because of their prolonged fatigue and short-term memory. This ailment can also lead to depression. Nevertheless, it should be kept in mind that depression cannot be a cause for CFS. 

I do not want to make this article too very complicated and would like to relate it to some true stories and make it quite interesting and informative. 

The first story: 
a report has been published in the Times of India a couple of days back. It is about a young engineering graduate Iqbal (imaginary name) in his middle twenties who joined a highly paid software job in Bangalore.  Iqbal resigned his dream job merely after eight months citing an unusual reason, that is ‘brain-fogginess’. 
His parents and friends initially refused to believe all this about Iqbal. But to their utter surprise all of them noticed an unusual pattern in his behavior. They found that it was difficult to interact with Iqbal in the mornings; because of the long pauses and monosyllabic answers they got from him. Evenings were, however a bit better as Iqbal seemed sharper. 
If someone at his workplace asked him for his address, he would take quite a long to recollect it. While doing any task like following a computer command seemed to be an uphill task for him. He sometimes would even fall asleep at his desk during working hours. 

The second story: 
There was front a page news on 19 June 2012 in the TOI about a 24 year youth, a high-profile professional who, in such an early age, amassed wealth worth 20 crore (200 million… hope I have calculated correctly). This youngster committed suicide by hanging himself out of utter loneliness. He was a recluse who rarely mingled with others and when he lost his mother out of cardiac arrest few months ago, he was rendered completely isolated from social life. He had lost his father 5 years back succumbing to a fall at their residence. 
He was initially posted at Chennai, but opted for a transfer recently in order to stay with his mother. 
This does not appear to be a simple case of mere solitude, because there is rampant loneliness among all of us in this age of corporate life. The 24 year boy appears to be suffering from something more serious ailment like Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS and the added solitude might have acted as an accelerator.  
I think his late parents could have thought about solemnizing marriage of their son immediately after completing his academics or at least on getting a job for himself. Had he got married on time and had a life-partner to live with, he probably might not have taken this extreme step of killing himself. 

The third story: 
I heard about another young man in his early twenties who did his BTech from an IIT and after completing the course got so very fatigued that he left his higher studies of MBA midway. Being a pass-out from an IIT, he was offered many prestigious jobs including MTNL and other renowned companies. Nevertheless, this young man did not continue with any of the jobs and finally chose a solitary life in a small town with his old parents. He also continued to be unmarried.


Review: 
It usually happens with some of the unfortunate highly qualified professionals with engineering, software and management degrees from prestigious institutes. They unexpectedly refuse to follow the normal way of life and resort to self-imposed solitary confinement. Some of them even renounce the worldly life and eventually turn into baba or swami in an ashram. 

All of these people have a couple of common factors among them and they are as follows:
  1. They have been students of prestigious institutions like IIT, IIM etc where they had to work hard and study for prolonged hours for completing their hi-tech huge syllabus of international standard.  
  2. All of these people, with rare exceptions, are unmarried and absolutely single. 
I think that some of the unfortunate people out of the above category of hi-tech professionals might become victims of the dreaded ailment called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS. The victims might also be comparatively more emotional, introvert, lonely and inactive by nature as compared to their more practical and inactive counterparts. 

People with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS experience the following symptoms: 
  1. Fatigue (tiredness, lethargy): People with CFS have long-term fatigue, lasting longer than 6 months to a year, without any other health complication or ailment. People with CFS may have had an infection in the past when the disease rendered them tired and run down. Nevertheless, the fatigue continues after the recovery from the illness.
  2. Cognitive difficulties (reasoning, intuition, or perception): people with CFS have problems of short-term memory loss and not long-term memory problems. They may have problems finding or saying a particular word during normal speech (called dysnomia or verbal dyslexia).
  3. Post-exertion fatigue: CFS patients are exceptionally and excessively tired after doing normal activities in day to day lives. Normal people do not get that much exhausted after normal physical activities.
  4. Fatigue after sleep: CFS patients also complain of fatigue even after prolonged rest or sleep. They do not feel refreshed after sleeping like others. 
  5. Depression: People with CFS may become patient of depression because of their inabilities in performing at their work-place or at home. Nevertheless, it is not the other way round. Patients of depression do not acquire CFS out of their ailment.
  6. General physical problems: Other symptoms that may be seen in the patients of CFS include headaches, muscle aches, sore throat, and even mild fever.
Causes of chronic fatigue syndrome:  
The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome is unknown, although there are many theories — ranging from viral infections to psychological stress. Some experts believe chronic fatigue syndrome might be triggered by a combination of factors. There's no single test to confirm a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome CFS. The patient may have to undergo a variety of medical tests to establish whether the symptoms are due to CFS or are indicating at some other ailment. 

Treatments of chronic fatigue syndrome:  
  1. As stated by Mayo Clinic staff on their official site the Treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome is focused on symptom relief. As I understand from this statement, the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome is done symptom by symptom. That means that no single medicine has yet been discovered for CFS as a single ailment like infection, deformation, injury etc. therefore each symptom of CFS is treated independently with its relevant medicines and drugs. We may enlist the following probable treatments that might be effective for treating the patients of this rare ailment if done in a proper way: 
  2. Antidepressants: Many people who have chronic fatigue syndrome are also depressed. Treating their depression can make it easier for the patient to cope with the problems associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. And low doses of some antidepressants also can help improve their sleep and relieve physical pains.
  3. Sleeping pills: Home measures, such as avoiding caffeine, are tried for getting good sleep. In case it does not help in getting better rest at night, the doctor might suggest trying with some medicines for good sleep.
  4. Therapy: The most effective treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome appears to be a two-pronged approach that combines psychological counseling with a gentle exercise program.
  5. Graded exercise: A physiotherapist can help determine what types of exercises are best for a CFS patient. Inactive people often begin with range-of-motion and stretching exercises for just a few minutes a day. Proper care has to be taken to limit the severity and period of exercise so that the patient does not feel over exhausted.  Patient’s strength and endurance will improve as he / she gradually increase the intensity of exercise over passage of time.
  6. Psychological counseling: Counseling with an expert psychologist would help the patient to figure out options to work around some of the limitations that chronic fatigue syndrome impose. Feeling more in control of your life can improve your outlook towards life dramatically. 
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Disclaimer:
This article is written based on my personal observations and on the information collected from the media. My intention for publishing the same is to provide healthy reading and intellectual entertainment and not for educating the visitors. No literature or authentic books have been referred for writing the contents of this article. The visitors are advised not to refer the contents of this article for any research or testimony on athletic or legal purposes. The visitors are further advised to consult relevant experts before adapting any information from this article. The author or the website are not responsible for any errors, mistakes, or omissions there in.
- Harish Jharia
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npad

15 June 2012

Visitors from across the world to ‘Discover Life Site‘ in Alphabetical Order since: 29 April 2012



Here are some of the countries from where our readers visited Discover Life Site from 29 April 2012 to 15 June 2012

Monumento a la Virgen de La Paz , Estado Trujillo, Venezuela

    Royal Palace, Nuku'alofa, Tonga, 1962

© Harish Jharia


  1. Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 
  2. Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  3. Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India 
  4. Airdrie, Alberta, Canada 
  5. Akola, Maharashtra, India 
  6. Alappuzha, Kerala, India 
  7. Ålborg, Nordjylland, Denmark
  8. Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, United States 
  9. Alsip, Illinois, United States 
  10. Amersfoort, Utrecht, Netherlands 
  11. Amman, Amman Governorate, Jordan 
  12. Amritsar, Punjab, India 
  13. Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States 
  14. Annville, Pennsylvania, United States 
  15. Atlanta, Georgia, United States 
  16. Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India 
  17. Aurora, Colorado, United States 
  18. Bacolod, Philippines
  19. Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan 
  20. Barre, Vermont, United States
  21. Bayreuth, Bayern, Germany 
  22. Beau Bassin, Plaines Wilhems, Mauritius 
  23. Beirut, Beyrouth, Lebanon 
  24. Belgaum, Karnataka, India 
  25. Belgrade, Serbia 
  26. Bellary, Karnataka, India 
  27. Bellevue, Washington, United States 
  28. Berlin, Germany
  29. Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 
  30. Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India 
  31. Bijnor, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  32. Bilbao, Pais Vasco, Spain 
  33. Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia 
  34. Bogra, Bangladesh 
  35. Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Italy 
  36. Booischot, Antwerpen, Belgium 
  37. Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
  38. Bratislava, Slovakia 
  39. Brighton, East Sussex, United Kingdom 
  40. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 
  41. Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy 
  42. Cairns, Queensland. Australia 
  43. Cambados, Galicia, Spain 
  44. Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom 
  45. Canovanas, Puerto Rico
  46. Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa 
  47. Caraguatatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  48. Carrollton, Texas, United States 
  49. Castelfidardo, Marche, Italy 
  50. Charallave, Miranda, Venezuela 
  51. Charleston, South Carolina, United States 
  52. Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States 
  53. Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India 
  54. Chicago, Illinois, United States
  55. Chisinau, Moldova 
  56. Cleveland, Ohio, United States 
  57. Columbus, Ohio, United States
  58. Concord, California, United States 
  59. Constantine, Algeria 
  60. Council Bluffs, Iowa, United States 
  61. Cracow, Malopolskie, Poland 
  62. Crawley, West Sussex, United Kingdom 
  63. Cronulla, New South Wales, Australia 
  64. Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico
  65. Cuttack, Orissa, India 
  66. Cypress, Texas, United States
  67. Czestochowa, Slaskie, Poland 
  68. Dakar, Senegal 
  69. Dar Es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 
  70. Decin, Ustecky kraj, Czech Republic
  71. Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 
  72. Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India 
  73. Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India 
  74. Dhule, Maharashtra, India 
  75. Divion, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France 
  76. Doha, Ad Dawhah, Qatar 
  77. Dubai, United Arab Emirates 
  78. Dubnica Nad Váhom, Trencin, Slovakia 
  79. Duisburg, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany 
  80. Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 
  81. Durrës, Durres, Albania 
  82. Eagle, Colorado, United States 
  83. Edappal, Kerala. India 
  84. Ede, Gelderland, Netherlands 
  85. Elburg, Gelderland, Nether lands
  86. Eltville, Hessen, Germany 
  87. Emakulam, Kerala, India 
  88. Encino, California, United States 
  89. Esslingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany 
  90. Évora, Evora, Portugal 
  91. Fawkner, Victoria, Australia 
  92. Forli, Italy
  93. Fort Lauderdale, Florida, United States 
  94. Fort-de-france, Martinique 
  95. Francisco Beltrão, Parana, Brazil 
  96. Froideville, Vaud, Switzerland 
  97. Galati, Romania 
  98. Gassino Torinese, Piemonte, Italy 
  99. Gatineau, Quebec, Canada 
  100. Gdansk, Pomorskie, Poland 
  101. Gizeh, Al Jizah, Egypt 
  102. Goodyear, Arizona, United States 
  103. Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  104. Guntakal, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  105. Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  106. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  107. Hanoi, Dac Lac, Vietnam 
  108. Helsinki, Southern Finland
  109. Hiddenhausen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany 
  110. High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom 
  111. Hightstown, New Jersey, United States 
  112. Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India 
  113. Hsinchu, Tai-wan
  114. Huntsville, Alabama, United States 
  115. Iasi, Romania 
  116. Ilford, Redbridge, United Kingdom 
  117. Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India 
  118. Islamic Republic of Iran
  119. Istanbul, Turkey 
  120. Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India 
  121. Jerusalem, Yerushalayim, Israel 
  122. Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India 
  123. Jönköping, Jonkopings Lan, Sweden 
  124. Kabul, Kabol, Afghanistan 
  125. Kangda, Himachal Pradesh, India 
  126. Kapolei, Hawaii, United states 
  127. Kapurthala, Punjab, India 
  128. Karnal, Haryana, India
  129. Kathmandu, Nepal 
  130. Kharagpur, West Bengal, India 
  131. Kharkov, Kharkivska Oblast, Ukraine 
  132. Kiev, Kyyivska Oblast, Ukrain 
  133. Kingston Upon Hull, Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom 
  134. Kogarah, New South Wales, Australia 
  135. Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India 
  136. Kota Bharu, Perak, Malaysia 
  137. Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia 
  138. Kowloon, Hong Kong 
  139. Kozhikode, Kerala, India 
  140. Králové, Kralovehradecky Kraj, Czech Republic 
  141. Ksiazenice, Lodzkie, Poland 
  142. Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia 
  143. Kuopio, Eastern Finland
  144. Kuwait, Al Kuwayt, Kuwait 
  145. Lafayette, Colorado, United States 
  146. Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan 
  147. Landau, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  148. Larka, Sindh, Pakistan 
  149. Lastra A Signa, Toscana, Italy 
  150. Latrobe, Tasmania, Australia 
  151. Ledziny, Slaskie, Poland
  152. Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal 
  153. Liverpool, United Kingdom 
  154. Long Beach, California, united States 
  155. Los Angeles, California, United States 
  156. Ludwigshafen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  157. Lustenau, Vorarlberg, Austria 
  158. Lytham, Sefton, United Kingdom 
  159. Macerata, Marche, Italy 
  160. Madrid, Spain 
  161. Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India 
  162. Maisuru, Karnataka, India 
  163. Manama, Al Manamah, Bahrain 
  164. Manila, Philippines 
  165. Maputo, Mozambique
  166. Marburg, Hessen, Germany
  167. Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  168. Mbabane, Hhohho, Swaziland 
  169. Mcallen, Texas, United States 
  170. Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  171. Merl, Luxembourg
  172. Milan, Lombardia, Italy 
  173. Minsk, Belarus 
  174. Montgomery Village, Maryland, United States 
  175. Montreal, Quebec, Canada
  176. Mussomeli, Sicilia, Italy 
  177. Nadiad, Gujarat, India 
  178. Nairobi, Nairobi Area, Kenya 
  179. Nangal, Punjab, India 
  180. Neyveli, Tamil Nadu, India 
  181. Nicolás Romero, Mexico
  182. Nicosia, Cyprus 
  183. Northbrook, Illinois, United States 
  184. Novi, Michigan, United States 
  185. Nukuʻalofa, Tonga  
  186. Oakland, California, United States 
  187. Ober-roden, Hessen, Germany 
  188. Offenburg, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany 
  189. Olds, Alberta, Canada 
  190. Olsztyn, Warminsko-Mazurskie, Poland
  191. Oradea, Bihor, Romania 
  192. Osmanabad, Maharashtra, India 
  193. Ostrów Wielkopolski, Kalisz, Poland 
  194. Pabianice, Lodzkie, Poland 
  195. Palakkad, Kerala, India 
  196. Panipat, Haryana, India 
  197. Paralakhemundi, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  198. Parappanangadi, Kerala,  India 
  199. Paris, Ile-de-France, France 
  200. Park Ridge, New Jersey, United States 
  201. Pasay City, Pasay, Philippines 
  202. Pasto, Narino, Colombia 
  203. Patna, Bihar, India 
  204. Pau, Aquitaine, France 
  205. Perth, Western Australia
  206. Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil
  207. Phoenix, Arizona, United States 
  208. Plymouth, United Kingdom 
  209. Polska, Malopolskie, Poland 
  210. Pondicherry, Puducherry, India 
  211. Port Louis, Mauritius 
  212. Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  213. Pôrto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil 
  214. Poznan, Wielkopolskie, Poland
  215. Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa 
  216. Provence-Alpes-Cote dAzur, France
  217. Puebla, Maxico
  218. Pulawy, Lubelskie, Poland 
  219. Quincy, Massachusetts, United States 
  220. Radom, Mazowieckie, Poland 
  221. Rajkot, Gujarat, India 
  222. Raurkela, Orissa, India 
  223. Raymond Terrace, New South Wales, Australia 
  224. Regau, Oberosterreich, Austria
  225. Rexburg, Idaho, United States 
  226. Richmond Hill, New York, United States
  227. Riyadh, Ar Riyad, Southey Arabia 
  228. Ródos, Dhodhekanisos, Greece
  229. Rohtak, Haryana, India 
  230. Romford, Havering, United Kingdom 
  231. Rossoszyca, Sieradz, Poland 
  232. Röykkä, Southern Finland 
  233. Ruda Slaska, Slaskie, Poland 
  234. Saint Neots, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom 
  235. Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg City, Russia 
  236. Salerno, Campania, Italy 
  237. Salt Lake City, Utah, United States 
  238. San Diego, California, United States 
  239. San Salvador, El Salvador 
  240. Santa Cruz De Tenerife, Canarias, Spain 
  241. Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
  242. Santiago, Region Metropolitana, Chile 
  243. Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
  244. Sarasota, Florida, United States 
  245. Sarpsborg, Ostfold, Norway 
  246. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  247. Savannah, Georgia, United States 
  248. Schiffweiler, Saarland, Germany 
  249. Scottsdale, Arizona, United States 
  250. Selam, Tamil Nadu, India 
  251. Senawang, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia 
  252. Seoul, Seoul-tukpyolsi, Korea
  253. Sevilla, Andalucia, Spain 
  254. Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia 
  255. Shahabad, Haryana, India 
  256. Shepparton, Victoria, Australia 
  257. Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India 
  258. Shimoga, Karnataka, India 
  259. Sirsa, Haryana, India 
  260. Skopje, Rep of Macedonia 
  261. Sofia, Grad Sofiya, Bulgaria 
  262. Sour Lake, Texas, United States 
  263. Southwark, Essex, United Kingdom
  264. Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India 
  265. Stary Torun, Torun, Poland 
  266. Stuttgart, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany 
  267. Suffolk, Virginia, United States 
  268. Sukkur, Sindh, Pakistan 
  269. Sulaimani, Diyala, Iraq
  270. Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia 
  271. Surat, Gujarat, India 
  272. Surrey, British Columbia, Canada
  273. Swanbourne, Western Australia
  274. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  275. Tacoma, Washington, United States 
  276. Tampere, Western Finland, Finland 
  277. Tangerang, Jawa Barat, Indonesia 
  278. Taoyuan, China 
  279. Tapejara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 
  280. Tbilisi, Dushetis Raioni, Georgia 
  281. Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India 
  282. Thessaloníki, Thessaloniki, Greece 
  283. Thrissur, Kerala, India 
  284. Tirana, Tirane, Albania 
  285. Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India 
  286. Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  287. Tokyo, Japan 
  288. Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy 
  289. Trondheim, Sor-Trondelag, Norway 
  290. Tucson, Arizona, United States 
  291. Udaipur, Rajasthan, India 
  292. Urbana, Illinois, United States 
  293. Valencia, Comunidad Valenciana, Spain 
  294. Valera, Trujillo, Venezuela 
  295. Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India 
  296. Verona, Veneto, Italy 
  297. Vienna, Wien, Austria 
  298. Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  299. Vimercate, Lombardia, Italy 
  300. Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India 
  301. Vlissingen, Zeeland, Netherlands
  302. Waipahu, Hawaii, United States 
  303. Warsaw, Mazowieckie, Poland
  304. Wellington, New Zealand
  305. Wichita, Kansas, United States 
  306. Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  307. Wysokie Mazowieckie, Podlaskie, Poland 
  308. Yakutsk, Russian Federation 
  309. Yerevan, Armenia 
  310. Zalesie, Lublin, Poland
  311. Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland 

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President of India Election 2012: Who will be the next Indian President… Abdul Kalam or Pranab Mukherjee?

© Harish Jharia

The President of India is the first citizen of the country. This position also has the distinctive power of being the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces. Nevertheless, the president is the head of the state of the republic of India rather than the head of the government. As such, the president does not have active and effective role to play in the governance.

          A.P.J. Abdul Kalam - 2002 to 2007

Article 52 of the constitution states: “There shall be a President of India. The executive powers of the Union shall be vested in the President. He, as the head of a state, symbolizes the nation. In some democratic systems, the head of the state is also the head of the government and, therefore, he will also be the head of the political executive. The US Presidency represents this form. In Britain, the monarch is the symbolic head, representing the British nation. The powers of the Government are vested in the political office of the Prime Minister. In Indian Parliamentary democracy we have adopted the latter form (British form). The President of India is the first citizen and represents the Indian nation and does not, therefore, belong to any particular political party. He is elected by the representatives of the people through an Electoral College.”

Article 54 of the constitution says: "The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States (including National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry."

                    Pranab Mukherjee

Keeping in mind the highly decorative chair of the President of India that has been equated with the British Monarch; the twelve Indian Presidents were elected unanimously, with consensus between the ruling and the opposition parties, in the independent India. The list of the Presidents of India from the latest to the earliest is as follows:
  1. Pratibha Patil – 2007 to date
  2. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam - 2002 to 2007
  3. K. R. Narayanan - 1997 to 2002
  4. Shankar Dayal Sharma - 1992 to 1997
  5. R Venkataraman - 1987 to 1992
  6. Giani Zail Singh - 1982 to 1987
  7. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy - 1977 to 1982
  8. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed - 1974 to 1977
  9. Varahagiri Venkata Giri - 1969 to 1974
  10. Zakir Husain - 1967 to 1969
  11. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan 1962 to 1967
  12. Rajendra Prasad - 1950 to 1962
Now, since the current President Mrs Pratibha Patil is going to retire in July 2012 an election for the highest Indian government position is going to be held shortly. The 2012 President’s election is quite different from those held in the past because of the ongoing number-game being played by the ruling alliance and amassing majority votes for appointing a person of their choice. The street politics played by the Indian politicians in this election has lowered the prestige of the royal position of the President.

The following are the unconventional developments observed among the Indian politicians for the election of the next President of India:
  1. On 14 June 2012 the chairperson of the ruling alliance UPA declared the names of Pranab Mukherjee (Finance Minister) and Hamid Ansari (Vice President of India) as their proposed candidates for the election of the President of India.
  2. It looked quite odd when the ruling party preferred to propose two options for the fellow parties to choose one for the President’s election.
  3. The ruling party alliance UPA should better have called a meeting with the opposition party alliance, something like an all-party meet to discuss a consensus candidate for the post of President.
  4. Pranab Mukherjee who appears to be the heavy-weight in Congress Party could also be a prospective candidate for prime Minister in the next general election.
  5. Pranab Mukherjee is an expert politician and played the role of troubleshooter in the Congress Party. The attempt for elevating him to the post of the President might be with some calculated purposes.
  6. The additional and optional name of Hamid Ansari might be for playing the minority card. His name might also been projected to counterweight the opposition candidate Abdul Kalam, the hi-profile renowned space scientist and the Ex-President of India.
  7. The opposition party alliance has projected the name of Abdul Kalam, a globally acclaimed personality in science and technology and who has served as the President of India.
  8. The election for the post of the first citizen of India has turned into a number game when the ruling Congress party set out for amassing majority votes by wooing their supporting parties with diverse policies and philosophies.
  9. A couple of their allies headed by Mamta Banerjee and Mulayam Singh Yadav publically expressed inclination for the opposition candidate Abdul Kalam. They even suggested the name of Man Mohan Singh, the current Prime Minister as the candidate.  
  10. This difference of policies among the allies of UPA has sparked off possibilities of political realignment and repolarization in India.
Whoever becomes the next President of India is a different matter. Nonetheless, the way the Indian ruling alliance is openly playing the number-game in this election, has exposed their doubtful intentions. The UPA could better have invited the opposition alliance NDA and collectively nominated a consensus candidate for the decorative royal post of the President of India. By doing so they would have upheld the prestige of indian republic in the eyes of the global community.

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Read more about Presidet of India Election:
Pranab Mukherjee Elected as India's 13th President: Shrewd UPA wins and Lackluster NDA Loses; http://www.discovery-of-life.com/2012/07/pranab-mukherjee-elected-as-indias-13th.html
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